Ηow oil burners are made
A burner consists of a set of components and instruments that are mounted on the burner body. This is how oil burners are made. All these together makes the burner, that is responsible for heating the water that comes into the panels located in our residence.
A burner consists of the following parts, that are special in it’s work. Below we are gonna show you the ones with the bigger importance.
- The trunk or body or chassis
- The engine
- The fan or impeller or blower
- The transformer
- The oil pump
- The programmer or brain or electronic
- The basis of the developer
- The injector or spray nozzle
- The photocell or photoresistor
- Electrodes or spark plugs or igniters
- The head or muzzle or flame tube
- Diffuser or mixer
- The electromagnetic oil valve
- Support flange
- The oil pipe
- High voltage cables
- The motor capacitor
- The air tamper
- The air regulator
- Pump coupler
- The flame inspection glass (not all)
- Oil preheater (not all)
- The cover (not all)
In order to be able to understand the way a burner works and also be able to adjust it or locating its faults, we should mension separately the role and operation of each instrument. Also, in cooperation with each other.
How oil burners are made – parts
All the necessary instruments for the operation of the burner are fitted on the trunk. It is configured to direct the impeller air through the nozzle to the diffuser for mixing with the oil.
A burner motor can be an electric single-phase or a three-phase one. It use to drive the impeller and the oil pump.
Single phase motors
Single-phase motors operate with the use of a capacitor. In case the capacitor breaks down or is damaged, the motor, in order to prevent overheating its windings and burns, blocks the operation of the burner. Also, cutting off the power supply to it.
A three-phase motors do not make use of a capacitor. In the event of a fault and in order not to burn the engine, we use an automatic protection switch (relay) and also thermal protection. The motors are distinguished by the number of revolutions per minute.
It is mounted on the motor and takes rotation by it. The purpose of it is to supply air through the nozzle to the diffuser, so it can be mixed with the oil. The air pressure is low and usually does not exceed the limit of one bar. But what differs between the burners apart from the air pressure, is the amount, emaning the cubic meters of air, that the impeller can carry.
A device that is attached to the burner body, that is located usually outside of our houses. Converts the voltage from 220 or 380V to a voltage of 5,000 to 15,000V in order to create a spark from the electrodes. That is the way the air-oil mixture is ignitted.
The oil pump (usually gear) is connected to the motor via a coupler, usually on the opposite side of the impeller. Its gears are rotated by the motor and it transfers the oil to the injector of the burner with high pressure. There are clockwise and counterclockwise pumps, with oil supply to the injector from the right or left, with built-in electromagnetic oil valve or without valve. We define its direction of rotation by looking at its axis and not its lid.
Under the lid (inside the pump) there is a filter which prevents garbage from passing to its paths and to the nozzle. There are two screws (plugs) on the lid. The letter P (on the lid) is usually embossed above one. By unscrewing this screw we make ventilation of the pump. This is the position that if instead of the screw we screw a pressure gauge and start the burner, then we have the indication of the oil pressure.
There is also the pressure regulator. It is a screw, which by turning it to the right with a screwdriver we increase the pressure of the oil, while turning it to the left we reduce the pressure.
Electronic of the burner
It is often called the programmer or the burner control unit. The electronics program the functions of all the other instruments. It is connected via a thermostat to supply electricity and this in turn gives commands (phase) to the motor, the transformer, the electromagnetic oil valve and the photocell, at various intervals. If something does not work properly, then the electronics block its operation. burner and the indicator light (which we call a block) on its lid lights up. We have to push the block (after examining the possible damage or other cause) for the burner to work again.
Base of the electronic
The base of the electronics has a series of terminals, where the power supply cables are connected to the electrical instruments of the burner. Also, the phase, ground and neutral of the power supply are adjusted, through a thermostat from the boiler panel. The electronic is adjusted to the base with a system of springs or with a screw and the electronic plates “fasten” to the terminals of the base.
The nozzle is the component that adapts to the nest of the oil supply pipe and aims to break down the oil into very small droplets. That way the oil can be easily mixed with the air and by this way a flammable material is created. It may be small, but it is a very important part of the burner. The selection of the injector depends on the pressure of the oil pump.
The photocell, or photoresistor, monitors the combustion flame of the air-oil mixture. Its role is twofold. Shuts off the burner if there is light (flame) inside the boiler before opening the electromagnetic oil valve of the burner or stops the operation of the burner (block) if no light is seen after opening it.
The electrodes, or spark plugs or igniters, are mounted above and near the nozzle. They transmit high voltage electricity from the transformer and create a spark to ignite the fuel. They must be correctly installed taking into consinderation the manufacturer’s instructions.
The nozzle or head or flame tube is mounted on the burner body. Includes oil supply hose, nozzle, diffuser and electrodes. It directs the air sent by the impeller to the diffuser and is designed to allow adjustment so that air can pass through or around the diffuser. In some burners it is stainless for greater resistance to temperature and corrosion from combustion residues.
The dispenser or mixer is mounted on the burner oil supply pipe, located inside the nozzle and a few millimeters in front of the injector. Its purpose is to mix the air with the injector oil “cloud” to create a complete flammable mixture to a proper combustion. Oil solenoid valve Usually located on the oil pump. If it is not integrated with the pump then it is located between it and the oil pipe. Allows or interrupts the supply of oil to the nozzle. It is electrically connected to the burner electronics and receives commands from it for its operating time.
It starts from the oil pump and ends in a nest with a female thread where the nozzle fits. A part of it is inside the mouth of the oil burner. The diffuser and electrodes are mounted on it. The part of the pipe outside the mouthpiece is usually a copper hose. The entire oil pipe is usually moved on a base. Going forward or backward we adjust the amount of air that will pass through the diffuser and the amount that will pass around it.
These are the main opponents aparts a usual oil burner. We hope that you have the knownledge that a man needs in order to know how a burner is working and maybe find himself a solution to some of the problems. Remember that it is a job of a technician to do a service and is better to call for one, in order not to have a bigger damage.